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Table of Contents – Ritual Purity Laws of Islam

 

 

Laws of Religion

Laws of Islam Concerning Ritual Purity and Cleanliness

from the Holy Qur’an, major hadith collections

and Islamic jurisprudence

 

6.  Impurity Requiring a Bath of Purification

From Islamic source documents: Qur’an and hadith

 

Contents

When bathing is required

Bathing procedures

Menstruation rules and restrictions

 

When bathing is required.  The Qur'an calls on Muslims to keep their clothing clean and pure.[1] The Qur'an refers to a true house of worship as a place in which are found men who love to purify themselves; Allah (God) loves those who purify themselves.[2] If a person is in a state of sexual defilement, it is necessary to wash before prayer. However, if a person is sick or travelling or coming out from relieving himself or has touched a woman and cannot find water, then rubbing the hands and face with pure earth is sufficient.[3]

 

The Qur'an talks of how Allah sent down water from the sky to purify Muslims.[4] (This refers to a particular time of battle.)

 

Only those who have been purified may touch the Holy Qur'an.[5]

 

The Qur'an says to stay away from women during their menstrual periods. Once they have been purified, then one is to go to them as Allah has commanded.[6]

 

The hadith collections report that Muhammad[7] and other men[8] would take baths when in a state of janaba (ritual impurity resulting from sexual intercourse or emission of semen when dreaming). Muhammad's wife, Aisha,[9] and other women[10] also took baths after sexual intercourse and after the completion of their menstrual periods.[11]

 

Muhammad said that a bath is required for a man[12] or a woman[13] who has had sexual intercourse.

 

Muhammad said that a bath was also required for a woman who experienced a sexual dream[14] specifically if the dream was accompanied by a discharge of fluid.[15] When questioned as to whether women have such sexual discharges, Muhammad said that it is this fluid that causes a child to resemble its mother[16] just as a man's sexual discharge causes a child to resemble its father.[17]

 

Muhammad said that a woman must also have a bath after the completion of her menstrual period.[18] He said that a woman must cease praying while she is menstruating. When her menstrual period is over, she is to bathe and then she may pray again.[19] She may, however, continue to pray if she is bleeding for a reason other than menstruation.[20] (Other rules and restrictions concerning menstruating women are discussed in a separate section on this page, below.)

 

Muhammad would take only one bath after having intercourse with his wives.[21] (He would have intercourse with all of his wives, one after the other – their number being given as nine or eleven.[22])

 

Muhammad said that a bath is not required after intercourse if there was no ejaculation of semen;[23] the man should only wash his penis[24] and perform ablution[25] before prayer[26] in such cases. Some of these reports are followed by parenthetical statements (by the modern translator) that the statement was abrogated.[27] Another report[28] is followed by a general statement that Muhammad abrogated some of his commands[29] (perhaps implying, but not actually stating, that the statement that a bath is not required after intercourse without seminal emission was later reversed by Muhammad.) In yet other cases, there is no indication that the statement was abrogated.[30] There are also reports that Muhammad did command that a bath be taken after sexual intercourse without ejaculation of semen[31] or after any contact of the male and female genitals[32] and that he and his wife Aisha would bathe under such circumstances.[33]

 

Muhammad was about to begin leading the community in prayer when he remembered he was junub (ritually impure from sexual intercourse or seminal emission when sleeping). So he told everyone to wait while he took a bath. Then he began leading the prayers with his head still dripping wet.[34]

 

It is permitted to go to sleep when junub without taking a bath if a man first washes his penis[35] and performs ablution (as for prayer).[36] Similarly, Muhammad did not take a bath but only performed ablution before eating after sexual intercourse.[37]

 

Muhammad ordered that a bath should always be taken before Jumua (Friday prayer)[38] even if a person is not junub.[39] One reason given for such baths before Friday prayers is to eliminate body odor, though this statement is not specifically attributed to Muhammad.[40]

 

Bathing procedures. When bathing after sexual intercourse, Muhammad would first wash his hands[41] and then his genitals.[42] He rubbed his hand with earth[43] or on a wall[44] and then performed ablution similar to that for prayer[45] except without washing his feet.[46] He then poured water on his head[47] by the handful three times[48] and over his whole body.[49] And, finally, after moving to a different place, he washed his feet.[50]

 

Muhammad instructed a man who was junub (impure from sexual intercourse or nocturnal emission of semen) to pour water over his body.[51] He said to use handfuls of water rather than washing in standing water.[52]

 

Muhammad said that after sexual intercourse, women should clean themselves thoroughly with water or perform ablution. Then they should pour water on their heads and rub it into their hair. Finally, the woman should pour more water on herself.[53]

 

Muhammad instructed women to use water with leaves from the lote tree for washing after the completion of the menstrual period. He said that a woman should clean herself thoroughly with this and then pour water on her head and rub it into her hair. Then she should pour water over it. He said that she should then clean herself with cotton that had musk on it.[54] When Muhammad told a woman in only a general way that she must clean herself with a perfumed cloth, Aisha explained to the woman in more detail that this meant that she should clean herself of all menstrual blood using a cloth scented with musk.[55]

 

Muhammad told his wife Umm Salama that she did not have to undo her plaited hair to take a bath after sexual intercourse. She only needed to pour three handfuls of water on her head and then pour water over herself.[56] In one report, he told her that these instructions also apply to bathing following menstruation.[57]

 

Muhammad's wife Aisha said that she would just put three handfuls of water over her head without undoing her hair when taking a bath.[58] Aisha said that when one of Muhammad's wives was junub, that wife would pour water three times over her head and rub her head with both hands.[59]

 

Muhammad would use one Sa' of water in taking his bath.[60] Muhammad and Aisha[61] or another one of his wives[62] would take a bath using water from the same container when they were junub.

 

Menstruation rules and restrictions.  A menstruating woman is forbidden from praying.[63] She may, however, continue to pray if she is bleeding for a reason other than menstruation.[64]

 

As stated on this page, above, when her menstrual period is over a woman is to bathe and then she may pray again.[65] If blood flows beyond the time of menstruation, Muhammad said that a woman should remain away from prayer for a time equal to a normal menstrual period and then take a bath and, following that, pray.[66]

 

One woman, recalling the practice of the Muslims during the time Muhammad was alive, said that menstruating women would come out and say takbir (“Allah-u Akbar” – God is most great) standing behind the men on the day of 'Id [67] ('Id ul-Fitr and 'Id al-Adha [68]) but were required to stay away from the place of prayer (musalla).[69]

 

A menstruating woman is prohibited from fasting.[70]

 

Muhammad said that a menstruating woman is permitted to participate in the Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca except that she may not participate in the ritual of walking in a circle (tawaf - circumambulation) around the Ka'ba.[71]

 

The Qur'an says to stay away from women during their menstrual periods. Once they have been purified, then one is to go to them as Allah (God) has commanded.[72] However, Muhammad said that the only thing that is prohibited with a menstruating woman is to have sexual intercourse. The lenient rulings concerning contact with menstruating women are contrasted with those of the Jews who, it says, will not eat or live in the same house with a menstruating woman. The Jews objected to Muhammad's deviation from their views on this matter.[73] (Editor’s note: The restrictions concerning menstruating women in Judaism are discussed in a separate section of this website on ritual purity in Judaism.)

 

Muhammad's wife Aisha reported many instances of close contact with her husband when she was having her menstrual periods. She said that she would comb his hair[74] and wash his head[75] while she was menstruating, even when he was in the mosque.[76] Muhammad sent Aisha to retrieve something from the mosque. When she indicated that she thought that this would not be appropriate because she was menstruating, he replied that her menstruation is not in her hand so she could proceed to the mosque to do what he had asked her to do.[77]

 

When Aisha was menstruating, Muhammad would lean with his head in her lap and recite the Qur'an.[78]  He would lie under the same sheet with his menstruating wives Aisha,[79] Umm Salama,[80] or Maimuna; Maimuna said that there would be a cloth between the two of them.[81] Muhammad would drink from a cup or bite meat from a bone putting his mouth on the same spot where Aisha had done the same, even though she was menstruating at the time.[82]

 

Muhammad would embrace his wife Aisha when she was menstruating.[83] Aisha said that Muhammad would have her clothe herself below her waist (in a waist-wrapper called an izar) when she was menstruating and then he would embrace and fondle her;[84] she noted in recounting this that he was superior at controlling his sexual urges.[85] He would similarly embrace and fondle his other wives, izar-clad, when they were menstruating.[86]

 

When Muhammad prayed, he was sometimes so close to his menstruating wife Maimuna that his clothing would touch her when he prostrated himself.[87] Aisha also reported that she was by Muhammad's side when he prayed, even though she was menstruating, and that part of the sheet that was covering her was over on his side.[88]

 

 

Impurity Requiring a Bath of Purification

From Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh§):  The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer of Ibn Rushd, the Risala of Shafi‛i and Reliance of the Traveller

 

Contents

When a bath of purification is required

Major (sexual) ritual impurity

Restrictions on menstruating women

Bathing procedures

 

When a bath of purification is required.  Major ritual impurity (janaba) resulting from specified sexual activities must be lifted by a ritual bath of purification (ghusl) when one is under an obligation to pray.[89] A bath of purification is also required at the end of a woman’s menstrual period.[90] Reliance of the Traveller says that a bath of purification is required not only when a woman's menstrual period has ended but also when vaginal bleeding following childbirth has ceased.[91] A bath of purification is recommended (sunna), but not required, prior to Friday prayers.[92]

 

Major (sexual) ritual impurity.  Major ritual impurity requiring a bath of purification (ghusl) results when a healthy person, awake or sleeping, discharges maniyy[93] (which is either female sexual fluid resulting from orgasm or sperm[94]). Among the scholars*, Al-Shafi‛i holds that emission of sperm, whether a person is asleep or awake, always necessitates a bath of purification while Malik says that such a bath is required only if the emission was pleasurable.[95] Malik and al-Shafi‛i and their followers are among those who say that any genital contact between a male and a female requires a bath of purification even if no ejaculation occurs.[96]

 

Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) provides more detail on some of these points. An emission of sperm or female sexual fluid (maniyy) that results in a state of major impurity is identified by its having at least one of the following three characteristics: the fluid is emitted with sexual pleasure; it is emitted in spurts; or it smells like dough used to make bread and, after drying, smells like egg white.[97] Thus the discharge of mahdy or wady from the penis does not require a bath of purification,[98] but only washing from one’s body and clothing as filth followed by ablution,[99] as discussed on previous pages Filth from Bodily Emissions and Ablution. (As stated on the page “Filth from Bodily Emissions,” madhy and wady are white fluids discharged from the penis, the former occurring during sexual stimulation prior to intercourse, the latter occurring after urination.[100]) If a woman has performed a bath of purification following sexual intercourse and then sperm comes out from her vagina, she must repeat the bath of purification unless she is a child who is too young to experience sexual pleasure or the intercourse was forced on her or occurred when she was sleeping rather than having been wanted by her.[101] Both a man and a woman enter a state of major impurity (janaba) as soon as the head of his penis is inserted in her vagina.[102]

 

Malik, Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi‛i and the Shafi‛i school agree that a person in a state of major (sexual) impurity is prohibited from touching a Qur’an[103] or reciting from the Qur’an[104] without first having a bath of purification. Malik is among those who permit menstruating women to recite a limited amount of the Qur’an, while others forbid it.[105]

 

Some scholars, including Malik, say that a person in a state of major (sexual) impurity may not enter a mosque without first performing a bath of purification[106] while for others, including al-Shafi‛i and the Shafi‛i school, it is permitted to enter a mosque just to pass through it but not to stay in it.[107]

 

Abu Hanifa says that the prayer of congregants is not valid if the leader is in a state of major (sexual) impurity when leading the prayers, while al-Shafi‛i and the Shafi‛i school say that the prayer is valid. According to Malik, such prayer is valid only if the leader was unaware of his state of impurity.[108]

 

Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) explains that, as with minor ritual impurity (discussed on the previous page on Ablution), it is offensive to make the call to prayer when in a state of major ritual impurity and even more offensive to call for the start of prayer when in such a state.[109]

 

According to Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school), a man may insist that his wife with major ritual impurity (janaba) take a bath of purification prior to sexual intercourse to help ensure maximum enjoyment.[110] A husband is required to give his wife money to purchase the water she needs to perform a bath of purification after sexual intercourse or when postnatal bleeding has ceased, but not at the end of her menstrual period.[111]

 

Restrictions on menstruating women.  It is forbidden to have sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman,[112] though a man may have access to her unclothed body above the waist.[113] Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) specifies that a menstruating woman is forbidden from having sexual pleasure between her navel and her knees.[114]  Among the scholars*, both Malik and al-Shafi‛i say that sexual intercourse is only permitted after a woman has had a bath of purification (ghusl) following the cessation of her menstrual period.[115] Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says that before having sexual intercourse following a woman's menstrual period, her husband may insist that she take the necessary bath of purification.[116] However, Abu Hanifa says that sexual intercourse is permitted before the bath of purification if more than ten days have elapsed since the start of her menstrual period[117] – ten days being the maximum duration of a menstrual period according to Abu Hanifa[118].

 

Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says that a man may have sexual intercourse with his wife if he does not believe her assertion that she is having her menstrual period.[119] Abu Hanifa, Malik and al-Shafi‛i agree that a man is not to be punished for having sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman, but he should ask Allah (God) for forgiveness. Ahmad ibn Hanbal says that in addition to asking Allah for forgiveness, he is to make a contribution to charity of one-half dinar or one dinar.[120]

 

In addition to being prohibited from reciting the usually obligatory prayers, a menstruating woman may not perform the ritual of walking around (circumambulating) the Ka’ba when on pilgrimage to Mecca.[121] While Ibn Rushd says that the scholars agree that fasting is not permitted for menstruating women,[122] and Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) also prohibits fasting during menstruation,[123] al-Shafi‛i says that scholars agree that menstruating women should fast.[124]

 

Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says that in addition to all those things prohibited to a person in a state of major (sexual) impurity, a menstruating woman or a woman having postnatal vaginal discharge is also prohibited from: walking through a mosque if she may contaminate it with blood, enjoying sexual activity between her navel and her knees, fasting, getting divorced or performing ritual purification. Once her menstrual period or postnatal bleeding has ceased, she may immediately resume these activities except for sexual intercourse, which must be preceded by a bath of purification.[125]

 

Bathing procedures.  Scholars* disagree about some details of how the bath of purification (ghusl) is to be conducted, but it includes pouring water over one's complete body.[126] Malik says that for the bath to be complete every part of the body must be stroked with the hand but al-Shafi‛i and Abu Hanifa say that having the water run over every part of the body is sufficient without hand rubbing.[127]

 

Abu Hanifa says that rinsing of the mouth and snuffing water into the nostrils and expelling it are required for a bath of purification while Malik and al-Shafi‛i say these are not required.[128] The 20th century translator of Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says that while rinsing of the mouth and nostrils is only required by the Hanafi school, it is a good precaution for any Muslim to do these two things as part of the bath of purification.[129]

 

Scholars also disagree about whether intention is required for a bath of purification, with Malik, al-Shafi‛i and the Shafi‛i school holding that intention is required but Abu Hanifa maintaining that the act itself is purifying whether or not it is accompanied by conscious intention.[130] These opinions concerning intention and the bath of purification are the same as those held by these same scholars concerning intention discussed on the previous page on Ablution.

 

Any complete washing of the body is sufficient and valid for a bath of purification according to al-Shafi‛i. He is clear that washing of the genitals and performing a complete ablution are recommended, rather than required, prior to a bath of purification.[131]

 

Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says that there are only two things required for a bath of purification to be valid: (1) intention and (2) that the water comes into contact with all parts of the body. The hair must be completely wetted and also the skin including under the foreskin of an uncircumcised man and all of the genital areas of a nonvirgin woman that become exposed when she squats to relieve herself.[132]

 

However, while these are the only required elements of the bath of purification, Reliance of the Traveller describes the complete ritual as containing the following elements: invoking the name of Allah (God);[133] cleaning all filth from the body;[134] performing a complete ablution as would be done before prayer;[135] pouring water over the head three times while consciously intending that this act will end the major ritual impurity (janaba) or menstruation or that it will permit prayer;[136] rubbing the water into the hair so it becomes completely wet;[137] pouring water three times over the right side of the body then three times over the left side, rubbing the skin and making sure that the water wets all joints and folds of the skin.[138]

 

Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says that if the bath of purification is being performed at the end of the menstrual period, the woman then uses musk to cover any odor that remains from the blood.[139] (A 19th century commentator at this point in Reliance of the Traveller says that the musk is applied to a piece of cotton that is then inserted as far into the vagina as would be visible when she squatted to relieve herself. A 20th century commentator says here, however, that it is not required to use musk, but soap or any other effective cleaning agent would be suitable.)

 

Reliance of the Traveller says that it is recommended to use at least one sa' (2.03 liters) of water in performing a bath of purification.[140]

 

________________

 

*Islamic scholars disagree on certain points of law based on different methodologies used in deriving the law from the Qur’an and the traditions (sunna) concerning the life of Muhammad and his closest companions, particularly as expressed in the compiled hadiths. There are four major schools of jurisprudence in Sunni Islam: the Maliki, the Hanafi, the Shafi‛i and the Hanbali. These names are derived from the individual scholars considered to have been the founders of each school: Malik, Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi‛i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, respectively. The source texts we have used to prepare our summaries of Islamic jurisprudence contain the legal views of these different founders and schools, as described at Source Texts Used for Laws of Islam.

 

§The more general term sharia is often used loosely to mean the specific derived laws of fiqh, such as those summarized here.

 

 

Laws of Religion is a project of the Religion Research Society.

 

Updated October 13, 2012

 

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Abbreviations used in footnotes:

QR:  Qur’an, with surahs (chapters) and ayahs (verses) numbered as in most modern translations, including those found here, here and here.

BK:  Hadith collection of al-Bukhari as found here (USC website) and here (ebook download). In a few instances, the hadiths on the USC website differ from those in the ebook download, either by having slightly different numbering of the hadiths or because the hadith appears only on the USC site and not in the ebook download. Such cases are noted in the footnotes by putting either “(USC)” or “(ebook)” after the relevant hadith number when it applies to only one of these two sources.

ML:  Hadith collection of Muslim as found here and here.

DJP:          The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer, by Ibn Rushd, translated by Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee, published by Garnet Publishing Ltd, Reading, UK. Volume 1, 1994. Volume 2, 1996. Limited preview is available here (Volume 1) and here (Volume 2).

RT:   Reliance of the Traveller: A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller, revised edition 1994, published by Amana Publications, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. It is available as a PDF file here and in HTML here.

SR:   al-Shafi‛i’s Risala: Treatise on the Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence, translated by Majid Khadduri, Second Edition, published by The Islamic Texts Society. It can be downloaded here.

  The sources cited are described on the page Source Texts Used for Laws of Islam.



[1] QR 74:4

[2] QR 9:108

[3] QR 4:43, QR 5.6

[4] QR 8:11

[5] QR 56:77-79

[6] QR 2:222

[7] BK 1:5:258, BK 1:5:260, ML 3:616-617, ML 3:618, ML 3:619, ML 3:620, ML 3:623, ML 3:624, ML 3:625, ML 3:626, ML 3:627, ML 3:628, ML 3:629, ML 3:630, ML 3:636, ML 3:639, ML 3:642

[8] BK 1:7:340, BK 5:59:637

[9] BK 1:5:276, ML 3:625, ML 3:627, ML 3:628, ML 3:629, ML 3:630

[10] BK 1:5:276, ML 3:643-644-645, ML 3:649-650

[11] ML 3:644, ML 3:647-648, ML 3:649-650-651, ML 7:2788

[12] BK 1:5:289-290, BK 1:7:340, ML 3:682-683

[13] ML 3:643-644-645, ML 3:649-650

[14] ML 3:607, ML 3:608, ML 3:609

[15] BK 1:3:132, BK 1:5:280, BK 4:55:545, BK 8:73:113, BK 8:73:142, ML 3:610-611-612, ML 3:613

[16] BK 1:3:132, BK 4:55:545, BK 8:73:113, ML 3:608, ML 3:610-611-612, ML 3:613

[17] ML 3:608

[18] BK 9:92:455-456, ML 3:644, ML 3:647-648, ML 3:649-650-651

[19] BK 1:4:228, BK 1:6:303, BK 1:6:317, BK 1:6:322, BK 1:6:327, ML 3:652-653, ML 3:658, ML 3:659

[20] BK 1:4:228, BK 1:6:303, BK 1:6:317, BK 1:6:322, ML 3:652-653, ML 3:659

[21] ML 3:606

[22] BK 1:5:268, BK 1:5:282

[23] BK 1:4:179, BK 1:4:180, BK 1:5:291, BK 1:5:292, ML 3:674, ML 3:676, ML 3:677, ML 3:678, ML 3:679, ML 3:680-681

[24] BK 1:4:179, BK 1:5:291, BK 1:5:292, ML 3:677, ML 3:677, ML 3:678, ML 3:680-681

[25] BK 1:4:179, BK 1:4:180, BK 1:5:291, BK 1:5:292, ML 3:676, ML 3:677, ML 3:678, ML 3:680-681

[26] ML 3:677

[27] BK 1:4:179, BK 1:4:180, BK 1:5:291, BK 1:5:292

[28] ML 3:674

[29] ML 3:675

[30] ML 3:676, ML 3:677, ML 3:678, ML 3:679, ML 3:680-681

[31] ML 3:682

[32] ML 3:684

[33] ML 3:685

[34] BK 1:5:274

[35] BK 1:5:286, BK 1:5:288, ML 3:602

[36] BK 1:5:284, BK 1:5:285, BK 1:5:286, BK 1:5:287, BK 1:5:288, ML 3:597, ML 3:598-599, ML 3:600, ML 3:601, ML 3:602, ML 3:603

[37] ML 3:598-599

[38] BK 1:12:817, BK 2:13:2, BK 2:13:3, BK 2:13:4, BK 2:13:5, BK 2:13:7, BK 2:13:9, BK 2:13:19, BK 1:13:20, BK 2:13:25, BK 2:13:26, BK 2:13:42, BK 3:48:833, ML 4:1832, ML 4:1833-1834-1835, ML 4:1836, ML 4:1837, ML 4:1838, ML 4:1841

[39] BK 2:13:9

[40] BK 3:34:285, ML 4:1840

[41] BK 1:5:248, BK 1:5:257, BK 1:5:259, BK 1:5:262, BK 1:5:265, BK 1:5:266, BK 1:5:272, BK 1:5:273, BK 1:5:275, BK 1:5:279, ML 3:616-617-618, ML 3:619, ML 3:620-621-622, ML 3:627

[42] BK 1:5:249, BK 1:5:257, BK 1:5:259, BK 1:5:260, BK 1:5:265, BK 1:5:266, BK 1:5:273, BK 1:5:275, BK 1:5:279, ML 3:616-617-618, ML 3:620-621-622, ML 3:627

[43] BK 1:5:257, BK 1:5:259, BK 1:5:265, BK 1:5:266, BK 1:5:273, BK 1:5:275, BK 1:5:279, ML 3:620-621-622

[44] BK 1:5:260, BK 1:5:266, BK 1:5:273, BK 1:5:279

[45] BK 1:5:248, BK 1:5:249, BK 1:5:257, BK 1:5:259, BK 1:5:260, BK 1:5:266, BK 1:5:272, BK 1:5:273, BK 1:5:275, BK 1:5:279, ML 3:616-617-618, ML 3:619, ML 3:620-621-622

[46] BK 1:5:249, BK 1:5:257, BK 1:5:259, BK 1:5:266, BK 1:5:273, BK 1:5:279

[47] BK 1:5:248, BK 1:5:254, BK 1:5:255, BK 1:5:256, BK 1:5:259, BK 1:5:265, BK 1:5:273, BK 1:5:275, ML 3:616-617-618, ML 3:620-621-622, ML 3:623, ML 3:627, ML 3:638, ML 3:638, ML 3:640-641, ML 3:642

[48] BK 1:5:254, BK 1:5:255, BK 1:5:256, BK 1:5:265, BK 1:5:272, ML 3:616-617-618, ML 3:620-621-622, ML 3:638, ML 3:638, ML 3:640-641, ML 3:642

[49] BK 1:5:248, BK 1:5:249, BK 1:5:256, BK 1:5:257, BK 1:5:265, BK 1:5:266, BK 1:5:272, BK 1:5:273, BK 1:5:275, BK 1:5:279, ML 3:616-617-618, ML 3:620-621-622

[50] BK 1:5:257, BK 1:5:259, BK 1:5:260, BK 1:5:265, BK 1:5:266, BK 1:5:273, BK 1:5:275, BK 1:5:279, ML 3:616, ML 3:620-621-622

[51] BK 1:7:340

[52] ML 2:556

[53] ML 3:649-650

[54] ML 3:649-650-651

[55] BK 1:6:311, BK 1:6:312, BK 9:92:455-456, ML 3:647-648, ML 3:649-650-651

[56] ML 3:643-644-645

[57] ML 3:644

[58] ML 3:646

[59] BK 1:5:276

[60] BK 1:5:251, BK 1:5:252

[61] BK 1:5:250, BK 1:5:261, BK 1:5:263, BK 1:5:272, BK 1:6:298, BK 7:72:839, BK 9:92:439, ML 3:625, ML 3:627, ML 3:628, ML 3:629, ML 3:630, ML 3:646

[62] BK 1:5:253, BK 1:5:264, BK 1:6:319, BK 3:31:151, ML 3:631, ML 3:632, ML 3:633

[63] BK 1:4:228, BK 1:6:301, BK 1:6:303, BK 1:6:317, BK 1:6:318, BK 1:6:321, BK 1:6:322, BK 1:6:327, BK 1:6:329, BK 1:8:347, BK 3:31:172, ML 3:652-653, ML 3:658, ML 3:659, ML 3:660, ML 3:661, ML 3:662

[64] BK 1:4:228, BK 1:6:303, BK 1:6:317, BK 1:6:322, ML 3:652-653, ML 3:658, ML 3:659

[65] BK 1:4:228, BK 1:6:303, BK 1:6:317, BK 1:6:322, BK 1:6:327, ML 3:652-653, ML 3:658, ML 3:659

[66] ML 3:658, ML 3:659

[67] BK 1:15:88, ML 4:1933

[68] ML 4:1934

[69] BK 2:15:91, BK 2:15:96, BK 2:15:97, BK 2:26:714, ML 4:1932, ML 4:1933, ML 4:1934

[70] BK 1:6:301, BK 3:31:172, ML 3:662, ML 6:2552

[71] BK 1:6:293, BK 1:6:302, BK 2:26:627, BK 2:26:631, BK 2:26:632, BK 2:26:712, BK 2:26:713, BK 2:26:810, BK 2:26:815, BK 3:27:13, BK 5:59:678, BK 7:68:456, BK 7:68:466, BK 9:90:336, ML 7:2764, ML 7:2772, ML 7:2773-2774, ML 7:2783-2784, ML 7:2787, ML 7:2791-2792-2793, ML 7:3058, ML 7:3059

[72] QR 2:222

[73] ML 3:592

[74] BK 1:6:294, BK 1:6:295, BK 3:33:245, BK 3:33:262, BK 7:72:808-809, ML 3:585

[75] BK 1:6:298, BK 3:33:247, ML 3:584, ML 3:586

[76] BK 1:6:295, BK 1:6:298, BK 3:33:245, BK 3:33:247, BK 3:33:262, ML 3:584, ML 3:585

[77] ML 3:587, ML 3:588, ML 3:589

[78] BK 1:6:296, BK 9:93:639, ML 3:591

[79] BK 1:6:297, BK 1:6:319, BK 1:6:320

[80] ML 3:581

[81] ML 3:580

[82] ML 3:590

[83] BK 3:33:247

[84] BK 1:6:298, BK 1:6:299, ML 3:577, ML 3:578

[85] BK 1:6:299, ML 3:578

[86] BK 1:6:300, ML 3:579

[87] BK 1:6:329, BK 1:8:376, BK 1:9:497, ML 4:1041

[88] ML 4:1042

[89] DJP 1.2 (Volume 1, pages 43-44), RT e10.1 (page 79), RT e10.2 (page 80), RT e10.7 (page 81), RT f9.13 (pages 152-153), SR 113 (pages 131-132), SR 115 (pages 132-133), SR 141 (page 151)

[90] DJP 1.2.2 (Volume 1, page 47)

[91] RT e10.1 (page 79)

[92] DJP 2.3.3.4.1 (Volume 1, page 184), RT e11.5 (pages 83-84), SR 320-321 (pages 223-224)

[93] DJP 1.2.2 (Volume 1, page 47)

[94] translator’s note at RT e10.1 (page 47)

[95] DJP 1.2.2.2 (Volume 1, pages 48-49)

[96] DJP 1.2.2.1 (Volume 1, pages 47-48)

[97] RT e10.1 (page 79), RT e10.4 (page 80)

[98] RT e10.5 (page 80)

[99] RT e10.6(2) (page 81)

[100] RT e10.5 (page 80), see also DJP 1.1.4 (Volume 1, page 32)

[101] RT e10.3 (page 80)

[102] RT e10.1 (page 79)

[103] DJP 1.2.3.1.2 (page 50), RT e10.7 (page 81)

[104] DJP 1.2.3.1.3 (Volume 1, page 50), RT e10.7 (page 81)

[105] DJP 1.2.3.1.3 (Volume 1, page 50)

[106] DJP 1.2.3.1.1 (Volume 1, pages 49-50)

[107] DJP 1.2.3.1.1 (Volume 1, pages 49-50), RT e10.7 (page 81)

[108] DJP 2.3.2.7 (Volume 1, page 173), RT f12.27 (page 183)

[109] RT f3.9 (pages 115-116)

[110] RT m5.6 (page 526)

[111] RT m11.3 (page 543)

[112] DJP 1.2.3.2.3 (Volume 1, pages 58-59)

[113] DJP 1.2.3.2.3.1 (Volume 1, pages 59-60)

[114] RT e13.4 (pages 93-94)

[115] DJP 1.2.3.2.3.2 (Volume 1, pages 60-62)

[116] RT m5.6 (page 526)

[117] DJP 1.2.3.2.3.2 (Volume 1, pages 60-62)

[118] DJP 1.2.3.2.2.1 (Volume 1, pages 51-53)

[119] RT e13.5 (page 94)

[120] DJP 1.2.3.2.3.3 (Volume 1, pages 62-63)

[121] DJP 1.2.3.2.3 (Volume 1, pages 58-59)

[122] DJP 1.2.3.2.3 (Volume 1, pages 58-59)

[123] RT e13.4 (pages 93-94)

[124] SR 114 (page 132)

[125] RT e13.4 (pages 93-94)

[126] DJP 1.2.1.1 (Volume 1, pages 44-45)

[127] DJP 1.2.1.1 (Volume 1, pages 44-45), SR 143 (pages 152-153)

[128] DJP 1.2.1.3 (Volume 1, pages 45-46)

[129] RT e11.1 (pages 82-83)

[130] DJP 1.2.1.2. (Volume 1, page 45), RT e11.1 (pages 82-83)

[131] SR 143 (pages 152-153)

[132] RT e11.1(a-b) (pages 82-83)

[133] RT e11.1(1) (page 82)

[134] RT e11.1(2) (page 82)

[135] RT e11.1(3) (page 82)

[136] RT e11.1(4) (page 82)

[137] RT e11.1(4) (page 82)

[138] RT e11.1(5) (page 82)

[139] RT e11.1(6) (page 82)

[140] RT e5.25 (pages 66-67)