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Table of Contents – Ritual Purity Laws of Islam

 

 

Laws of Religion

Laws of Islam Concerning Ritual Purity and Cleanliness

 

5.  Ablution

 

from the Holy Qur’an, major hadith collections

and Islamic jurisprudence

 

 

Ablution

From Islamic source documents: Qur’an and hadith

 

 

Contents

 

Required times for ablution

 

Ablution procedures

 

Rewards for proper ablution

 

Nullification of ablution

 

 

Required times for ablution. The Qur'an refers to a true house of worship as a place in which are found men who love to purify themselves; Allah (God) loves those who purify themselves.[1] It also requires the washing of one's face and one's hands up to the elbows and the wiping of one's head and also one’s feet up to the ankles before commencing prayer.[2] Only those who have been purified may touch the Holy Qur'an.[3] The Qur'an talks of how Allah sent down water from the sky to purify Muslims. (This refers to a particular time of battle.)[4]

 

The hadiths report that Muhammad performed ablution before prayer.[5] Although Muhammad performed ablutions before every prayer, his companion Muslims would use one ablution for more than one prayer time unless the ablution had been nullified.[6] (Nullification of ablution is discussed on this page, below.) Muhammad told the Muslims that their prayers would not be accepted without the purification of ablution.[7]

 

When Muhammad had just come out of the privy and had not touched water, he was asked if he did not need to perform ablution before eating. He responded by asking if he was going to pray[8] (implying that ablution was not needed before eating).

 

Muhammad said that ablution should be performed after having sexual intercourse with one's wife if one intends to repeat the act.[9]

 

Muhammad said that ablution should be performed before going to bed, and then a prayer should be said to ensure that, if one dies in the night, it will be as a faithful Muslim[10] and if you wake up in the morning, it will be with bliss.[11]

 

The Qur'an says that only those who have been purified may touch the Holy Qur'an.[12] Muhammad recited verses of the Qur'an without performing ablution.[13] He is reported to have gone outside and looked up at the sky while doing this recitation. [14] (Editor’s note: Of course, there was no written Qur’an at the time so he was not touching a Qur'an).

 

When there was insufficient water for ablution, water would miraculously flow from between or below Muhammad's fingers to meet, and exceed, the need.[15] When the container of water was too small for performing ablution, at least eighty people performed ablution as a result of a miracle of Muhammad.[16]

 

 

Ablution procedures. Muhammad performed the following actions in the following order in performing his ablutions.

 

He washed his hands[17] by pouring water over them three times.[18] He filled a hand[19] – his right hand[20] – with water; and rinsed his mouth with the water[21] three times.[22] He took some water into his nose and blew it out in order to clean his nose.[23] He washed his nose this way three times.[24] Then, with another handful of water,[25] he washed his face[26] three times[27] using both hands.[28]

 

Then he washed his hands[29] or his forearms[30] up to the elbows.[31] With one handful of water[32] he washed his right forearm.[33] With another handful,[34] he then washed his left forearm.[35] The washing of each forearm, up to the elbows, was done twice,[36] or three times.[37]

 

Then he wiped his head with his wet hands[38] from front to back[39] or from front to back and then from back to front.[40] Muhammad is also reported to have wiped his turban, rather than his bare head, in performing ablution, after first wiping his forelock[41] or forehead.[42] Some texts are unclear as to whether his wiping of his turban was during ablution or following the completion of ablution.[43]

 

Then he poured another handful of water over his right foot and washed it thoroughly. Finally, he washed his left foot the same way.[44] He washed his feet,[45] up to the ankles,[46] first the right then the left,[47] three times each.[48]

 

The washing of his forearms and feet is consistent with his general pattern of doing things first on the right side.[49] Muhammad would use one mudd[50] or one makkuk[51] of water in performing ablution.

 

Muhammad said that when performing ablution after waking, the nose should be washed three times by taking water into it and blowing the water out because Satan passes the night within the person's nose.[52]

 

Muhammad warned others about the fire of hell for not performing ablution thoroughly,[53] for not washing their feet thoroughly in ablution,[54] for merely passing their wet hands over their feet,[55] or for leaving their heels dry.[56] However, Muhammad was reported to have performed ablution while wearing leather socks (in the translation of al-Bukhari; (Arabic, khuff))[57] or socks (in the translation of Muslim)[58] – wiping them with his wet hands. It is also reported that Muhammad performed ablution while wearing tanned leather shoes[59] or leather shoes that had no hair[60] (in the translation of al-Bukhari) or shoes[61] (in the translation of Muslim). (Editor’s note: There are parenthetical explanations saying that Muhammad took the shoes off to wash his feet and then put them on, but these are interpretations by the translator rather than what is stated in the original texts.[62]) Other texts are unclear whether wiping of his leather socks (khuffs) was part of the ablution procedure or done only after ablution, including washing of the feet, was completed.[63]

 

The issue of whether Muhammad always removed his shoes or socks when performing ablution is clarified by his statement that it is permitted to wipe the shoes or socks for up to three days after putting them on when traveling or for one day when not traveling.[64] Also when he wiped his leather shoes or socks with his wet hands in performing ablution he explained that they did not need to be removed because he had performed ablution before putting them on[65] or that his feet were clean when he had put them on.[66] (Editor’s note: Thus, under certain circumstances, Muhammad performed ablution without washing his bare feet; wiping of his shoes or socks was sufficient.)

 

Muhammad said that he would have required the cleaning of teeth with siwak (the term "tooth-stick" is used in the translation of Muslim) in preparation for prayer but he was afraid that this would be too difficult for his followers.[67]

 

 

Rewards for proper ablution.  (Editors note:  The rewards for prayer, stated many times in the hadith collections, are not cited here – only the rewards specifically linked in the texts to ablution alone.)

 

Ablution bestows a radiance on a person that will be noticed on the Day of Resurrection.[68] This brightness will be evident on the faces and hands and feet that were washed during ablution.[69] These marks will enable Muhammad to identify his followers on the Day of Resurrection.[70] Muhammad will even recognize those Muslims that have not yet been born by their white faces, arms and legs resulting from ablution.[71]

 

A properly performed ablution results in expiation of all past sins.[72] In performing ablution, washing the face removes all the sins the person has seen with his eyes, washing the hands removes all sins done with his hands, and washing the feet removes all sins that his feet have walked toward.[73] Rinsing the mouth and the nostrils eliminates sins of the face, mouth and nostrils; washing the face eliminates sins of the face; washing the forearms eliminates sins of the arms; wiping the head eliminates sins of the head; washing the feet eliminates sins of the feet.[74]

 

After performing a perfect ablution, a person's reward (after death) is increased and one sin is forgiven for each step taken with the sole intention of praying until he enters the mosque to pray.[75] Alternatively, all his previous sins will be expiated as he walks toward the mosque.[76]

 

While a person is waiting at his place of prayer to pray, the angels continue to ask Allah (God) to be merciful to that person as long as he does not pass gas through his anus (which nullifies his ablution).[77]

 

The three knots that Satan puts at the back of a sleeping person's head are undone (1) upon waking and remembering Allah, (2) upon performing ablution and (3) upon praying.[78]

 

 

Nullification of ablution. A prayer of a person who does hadath, breaking his ablution, is not accepted by Allah until the ablution is repeated. Hadath means passing gas through the anus.[79] Muhammad said, however, that the person should stay at prayer unless the passing of the gas is heard or smelled.[80]

 

Following ablution, a person waiting for prayer is considered to be praying as long as he does not do hadath.[81] While Muhammad performed ablution before each prayer, his companions would rely on one ablution for multiple prayer sessions unless that ablution was broken by hadath.[82]

 

Muhammad is reported to have performed ablution after urinating or defecating.[83] (Editor’s note: But note, as stated on this page above, that Muhammad performed ablution prior to every prayer whether or not he had broken an earlier ablution.) Muhammad is clear that washing of the penis and ablution is required following "emotional urethral discharge"[84] or prostatic fluid flowing[85] from the male organ.

 

Muhammad said that it was necessary to wash one's hands after waking up before putting the hands in the water used for ablution because it isn't known where the hands were during sleep.[86] Muhammad prayed, at least on one occasion, after awaking without first performing ablution. Others explained this by saying that when Muhammad's eyes were sleeping his heart was still awake and also that Muhammad's dreams were divinely inspired.[87] (Editor’s note: This would imply that sleep did not break Muhammad's ablution, but that he was different from other people in this regard.) In another report, Muhammad performed ablution prior to prayer after waking up.[88]

 

Muhammad was reported to have touched the leg of his wife, Aisha, when prostrating himself in prayer.[89] (Editor’s note: This implies that touching a woman did not nullify Muhammad’s ablution since there is no indication that he stopped his prayer after touching his wife.)

 

Muhammad said that it is necessary to perform ablution before prayer after eating anything touched by fire.[90] He also said that ablution is required after eating meat from camel but not mutton.[91] Jabir (one of Muhammad's companions) said that the Muslims only very rarely had a cooked meal during Muhammad's lifetime and that they would pray after the cooked meal without first performing ablution.[92] Muhammad himself was seen eating meat[93] including meat from goat,[94] or sheep (mutton),[95] specifically cooked mutton,[96] and also bread[97] and sawiq[98] (defined elsewhere as powdered barley[99]), and then praying without performing ablution.

 

(Editor's note: There is no indication in the Qur'an or in the hadith collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim that ablution is nullified by any factor other than those discussed above.)

 

 

Ablution

From Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh§):  The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer of Ibn Rushd, the Risala of al-Shafi‛i and Reliance of the Traveller

 

Contents

 

Required times for ablution

 

Ablution procedures

 

Nullification of ablution

 

 

Required times for ablution. Ritual ablution (wudu) with water by prescribed procedures is necessary to lift minor ritual impurity (hadath) from a person who is under an obligation to pray.[100] Subsequent minor ritual impurity makes the ablution invalid and requires that it be repeated before prayer can be initiated or completed.[101] Hadath does not always mean uncleanness.  For example, for some scholars*, a man touching a woman or a person touching human genitals is hadath and nullifies ablution, but it does not involve filth or uncleanness.[102] Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) recommends repeating ablution for prayer even if no ritual impurity has occurred since the previous prayer.[103]

 

Purification by ablution is required for prayer by those who are sane and past puberty.[104] (Reliance of the Traveller explains that puberty applies when a person’s first wet dream occurs or when the age of 15 is reached or when a female first menstruates or becomes pregnant).[105] It is necessary to repeat, after purification, a prayer performed without purification.[106] Malik, al-Shafi‛i and the Shafi‛i school say that ablution is also required for performing the pilgrimage ritual of circling the Ka’ba in Mecca[107] and for touching or carrying the Qur’an.[108] Abu Hanifa says that ablution is not required for circling the Ka’ba[109] but is required for touching the Qur’an.[110]  A translator’s note in Reliance of the Traveller states that the Hanafi school permits someone in a state of minor ritual impurity to carry the Qur’an without prior ablution if the Qur’an is in a separate container.[111] Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says that ablution is recommended before one recites the call to prayer. It is offensive to make the call to prayer when in a state of minor ritual impurity and even more offensive to call for the start of prayer when in such a state.[112]

 

While it is permitted to eat or drink or repeat sexual intercourse when a person is in a state of major (sexual) impurity (janaba),[113] Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) recommends that a person in this state perform ablution before engaging in one of these activities.[114] (Major (sexual) impurity is discussed on the following page, Impurity Requiring a Bath of Purification.)

 

 

Ablution procedures. While some of the details of the procedures to be used in ablution (wudu) are a matter of disagreement among scholars*, ablution includes the use of water to clean the face, hands, forearms and feet in a specified order by specific procedures.[115] Malik, al-Shafi‛i, and the Shafi‛i school say that specific, conscious intention is required for ablution to be valid, while Abu Hanifa says it is not.[116]

 

Some scholars say that beginning ablution by reciting an appropriate blessing mentioning the name of Allah (God) is required while others say it is recommended.[117] For example, Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) recommends beginning by reciting an appropriate blessing mentioning the name of Allah.[118]

 

Some scholars, including Malik and al-Shafi‛i, say that the hands should always be washed before putting them in the water used for ablution, while others recommend it only when the cleanliness of the hands is in doubt; still others say that it is only required after arising from sleep – with some saying that this refers to any sleep and other saying that it refers only to sleep at night.[119] The Shafi‛i school is among those who recommend that such washing before ablution be done three times.[120] This school also says to then clean the teeth with a tooth-stick[121] (siwak,[122] which is preferably an arak twig, but can be anything rough other than a finger[123]).

 

The mouth is then rinsed and water is snuffed up into the nostrils and blown out to wash the nose.[124] Scholars agree that the face is then to be washed, although there are differences from scholar to scholar on how thoroughly the face and beard must be washed.[125] The forearms are then washed with Malik, al-Shafi‛i and the Shafi‛i school and Abu Hanifa, agreeing that this includes the elbows.[126]

 

The head is then wiped but there is disagreement as to how much of it must be wiped.[127] Malik, al-Shafi‛i and Abu Hanifa agree that it is not sufficient to only wipe one’s turban but Ahmad ibn Hanbal says that this is sufficient.[128] Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says that when wearing a turban that is difficult to remove, the turban may be wiped but only after wetting the minimum required amount of the head – which is at least part of one hair on the head.[129]

 

The ears are then washed. Abu Hanifa says that it is required to use the same water for this as is used for washing the head while al-Shafi‛i, the Shafi‛i school and scholars of the Maliki school say that new water is to be used.[130]

 

Malik, Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi‛i, and the Shafi‛i school agree that the feet are then to be washed up to the ankle bones.[131]

 

Most scholars say that it is always permitted to wipe one's boots (khuff) rather than wash the feet. Some say that this is permitted only when one is traveling. Others, however, said that it is never permitted.[132]  Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says wiping one's footwear (khuff) can be permitted for three days for one who is on a journey or for one day for someone who is not traveling, with the three day or one day period beginning at the time of the first minor ritual impurity (hadath) after putting on the footwear.[133] It says that wiping footwear is only permitted if it was put on following the performance of a complete ablution. The footwear may be of leather or other material that prevents water from seeping through the material to the foot.[134] It is also specified by al-Shafi‛i that wiping one’s footwear rather than one’s feet is only permissible if the footwear has been worn in a condition of complete purity.[135]

 

The Shafi‛i school is among those who say that washing of the mouth and nostrils,[136] the face[137] and the hands and forearms up to the elbows,[138] wiping of the head[139] and the ears[140] and washing the feet up to the ankle bones[141] are each to be performed three times. Reliance of the Traveller says to wash the right arm or leg before the left one, but that both hands, both cheeks and both ears are to be washed at the same time.[142] It also says that it is recommended to use at least one mudd (0.51 liters) of water in performing ablution.[143]

 

Under certain circumstances, dry ablution (tayammum, discussed on a following page, Dry Ablution) can substitute for ablution (wudu).[144] Such dry purification with earth permits prayer and touching of the Qur'an.[145]

 

 

Nullification of ablution. A person must purify himself again if his ablution (wudu) is nullified by a minor ritual impurity, which includes urination, defecation, passing gas from the anus (but not belching[146]), madhy, and wady.[147] (As discussed on the previous page, Filth from Bodily Emissions, madhy and wady are white fluids discharged from the penis, the former occurring during sexual stimulation before intercourse, the latter occurring after urination.[148]) Among the scholars*, Malik says that excretions from the anus or penis cause minor ritual impurity only if they occur when a person is healthy and that, for example, excreting worms or urinating due to incontinence do not result in ritual impurity. In contrast, al-Shafi‛i says that all excretions from the anus or penis nullify ablution whether the person is healthy or sick. Abu Hanifa holds that all bodily excretions other than minor bleeding and sputum nullify ablution.[149]

 

According to the Shafi‛i school, there are some cases when ablution is not nullified by emission of semen or female sexual fluid during orgasm, for example if it occurs during a sexual dream when one is firmly seated or if it results from looking lustfully at someone. When sexual emission occurs while sleeping other than in a firmly seated position, ablution is nullified by sleep (as discussed on this page, below); when such emission occurs during sexual intercourse, ablution is nullified by the touching of one’s spouse’s skin (also discussed below).[150]

 

Becoming impure (for example, by passing gas) during prayer requires termination of the prayer[151] even if this happens absentmindedly.[152] However, the sudden ritual impurity of the prayer leader does not invalidate the prayers of the group if the leader stops and the others continue praying. If it is discovered later that a prayer leader was ritually impure during the prayers, al-Shafi‛i and the Shafi‛i school hold the prayers to be valid while Abu Hanifa says they are invalid; Malik says they are valid only if the leader was unaware of his state of impurity.[153]

 

Scholars disagree on when sleep nullifies ablution based on body position, since position can affect both the depth of the sleep and the discharge of gas through the anus while sleeping, which nullifies ablution.[154] Abu Hanifa says it is only when one sleeps on one’s side that ablution is nullified. Malik says that ablution is nullified whenever a person sleeps on his side or lying face down and also if a long sleep occurs when sitting. For al-Shafi‛i, the only sleep that does not nullify ablution is when a person dozes off in a sitting position.[155] Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says that ablution is not nullified if one is seated firmly on the ground without shifting position on the ground while asleep.[156]

 

Malik, Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi‛i and the Shafi‛i school and agree that ablution is necessary after consciousness is lost for any reason, such as fainting, alcohol consumption or insanity, not only because of sleep.[157]

 

Abu Hanifa holds that touching between a man and a woman does not result in a requirement for ablution; Malik says that ablution is required when there is kissing or lustful touching; al-Shafi‛i maintains that kissing or any touching of a woman’s skin by a man requires ablution.[158] Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) explains in more detail that any skin contact between a man and a woman nullifies ablution except when the two people are close relatives who are, therefore, forbidden to marry or when one of them is a child too young to be of interest sexually. However, if the other person is very old, or even dead, ablution is nullified by touching.[159]

 

Scholars disagree whether touching one's penis requires ablution. Abu Hanifa says that such touching never requires ablution while Malik calls for ablution only if touching of the penis is intentional. Disciples of Malik add that ablution is required only if pleasure is derived from touching one's erect penis or, alternatively, if it is touched with the inner (palm) side of the hand (not with the back of the hand). Touching one’s penis always requires ablution according to al-Shafi‛i.[160] Reliance of the Traveller explains in more detail the views of the Shafi‛i school, that ablution is nullified by touching the front or rear private parts of oneself or another person, male or female, of any age, dead or alive, with the inner (palm) side of the hand or fingers, though not if it is only with the finger tips.[161]

 

Abu Hanifa says that laughter when one is praying nullifies ablution, but most other scholars disagree.[162] For example, Reliance of the Traveller, expressing the outlook of the Shafi‛i school, specifically says that laughing during prayer does not nullify ablution.[163] Even those scholars who hold that laughter does not invalidate ablution agree that prayer must be stopped if a person laughs, but there is disagreement as to whether this applies to mere smiling.[164]

 

While belching does not nullify ablution, there is disagreement among scholars as to whether it invalidates prayer and necessitates its repetition; some say yes, some say no, some say it depends on whether the belch was audible.[165] When any substance reaches a body cavity through the intent of the person, then prayer is invalidated. If this is involuntary then it only invalidates prayer when the amount is significant.[166]

 

________________

 

*Islamic scholars disagree on certain points of law based on different methodologies used in deriving the law from the Qur’an and the traditions (sunna) concerning the life of Muhammad and his closest companions, particularly as expressed in the compiled hadiths. There are four major schools of jurisprudence in Sunni Islam: the Maliki, the Hanafi, the Shafi‛i and the Hanbali. These names are derived from the individual scholars considered to have been the founders of each school: Malik, Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi‛i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, respectively. The source texts we have used to prepare our summaries of Islamic jurisprudence contain the legal views of these different founders and schools, as described at Source Texts Used for Laws of Islam.

 

§The more general term sharia is often used loosely to mean the specific derived laws of fiqh, such as those summarized here.

 

________________

 

Laws of Religion is a project of the Religion Research Society.

 

Updated October 14, 2016

 

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Table of Contents – Ritual Purity Laws of Islam

 

Abbreviations used in footnotes:

QR:   Qur’an, with surahs (chapters) and ayahs (verses) numbered as in most modern translations, including those found here, here and here.

BK:    Hadith collection of al-Bukhari as found here (USC website) and here (ebook download). In a few instances, the hadiths on the USC website differ from those in the ebook download, either by having slightly different numbering of the hadiths or because the hadith appears only on the USC site and not in the ebook download. Such cases are noted in the footnotes by putting either “(USC)” or “(ebook)” after the relevant hadith number when it applies to only one of these two sources.

ML:    Hadith collection of Muslim as found here and here.

DJP:  The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer, by Ibn Rushd, translated by Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee, published by Garnet Publishing Ltd, Reading, UK. Volume 1, 1994. Volume 2, 1996. Limited preview is available here (Volume 1) and here (Volume 2). Full text online and download for Volume 1 is here and here and for Volume 2 is here and here.

RT:    Reliance of the Traveller: A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller, revised edition 1994, published by Amana Publications, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. It can be downloaded as a pdf file from various websites such as this one.

SR:    al-Shafi‛i’s Risala: Treatise on the Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence, translated by Majid Khadduri, Second Edition, published by The Islamic Texts Society. It can be downloaded here.

●  The sources cited are described on the page Source Texts Used for Laws of Islam.



[1] QR 9:108

[2] QR 5:6

[3] QR 56:77-79

[4] QR 8:11

[5] BK 1:4:141, BK 1:4:183, BK 1:4:187, ML 2:494

[6] BK 1:4:213

[7] BK 2:21:253, ML 2:433-434, ML 2:435

[8] ML 3:725, ML 3:726, ML 3:727, ML 3:728

[9] ML 3:605

[10] BK 1:4:247, BK 8:75:323, ML 35:6544-6545

[11] ML 35:6545

[12] QR 56:77-79

[13] BK 1:4:183, ML 2:494

[14] ML 2:494

[15] BK 1:4:170, BK 1:4:199, BK 4:56:772, BK 4:56:773, BK 4:56:774, BK 4:56:776, BK 5:59:473, BK 7:69:543, ML 18:4291, ML 30:5656, ML 30:5657, ML 30:5658, ML 42:7149

[16] BK 1:4:194, BK 4:56:775

[17] BK 1:4:190, ML 2:531-532-533

[18] BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:165, BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:186, BK 1:4:191-192, BK 1:4:198, BK 3:31:155, ML 2:436, ML 2:437, ML 2:453-454-455-456, ML 4:848

[19] BK 1:4:142, ML 2:453-454-455-456

[20] BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:165, BK 1:4:191-192, ML 2:437

[21] BK 1:4:142, BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:165, BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:186, BK 1:4:190, BK 1:4:191-192, BK 1:4:198, BK 3:31:155, BK 4:52:167, BK 7:72:690, ML 2:436, ML 2:437, ML 2:453-454-455-456, ML 2:457

[22] BK 1:4:185

[23] BK 1:4:142, BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:162, BK 1:4:163, BK 1:4:165, BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:190, BK 1:4:191-192, BK 1:4:198, BK 3:31:155, BK 4:52:167, BK 7:72:690, ML 2:436, ML 2:437, ML 2:453-454-455-456, ML 2:457, ML 2:458, ML 2:459, ML 2:460

[24] BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:186, BK 1:4:190, BK 1:4:191-192, BK 1:4:198, ML 2:436, ML 2:453-454-455-456, ML 2:462

[25] BK 1:4:142

[26] BK 1:4:142, BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:182, BK 1:4:196, BK 1:4:198, BK 3:31:155, BK 4:52:167, BK 5:59:705, BK 7:72:690, ML 2:436, ML 2:453-454-455-456, ML 2:457, ML 2:477, ML 2:478, ML 2:525, ML 2:528, ML 2:529, ML 2:531-532-533, ML 4:848

[27] BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:165, BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:186, BK 1:4:191-192, BK 1:4:196, BK 1:4:198, BK 3:31:155, ML 2:436, ML 2:453-454-455-456, ML 2:457, ML 4:848

[28] BK 1:4:142

[29] ML 2:457, ML 2:477, ML 2:478, ML 2:525

[30] BK 1:4:182, BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:191-192, BK 5:59:705, ML 2:437, ML 2:453-454-455-456, ML 2:477, ML 2:478, ML 2:528, ML 2:529, ML 2:531-532-533, ML 4:848

[31] BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:165, BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:186, BK 1:4:190, BK 1:4:191-192, BK 1:4:196, BK 1:4:198, BK 3:31:155, ML 2:436, ML 2:437, ML 2:453-454-455-456, ML 4:848

[32] BK 1:4:142

[33] BK 1:4:142, BK 3:31:155, ML 2:436

[34] BK 1:4:142

[35] BK 1:4:142, BK 3:31:155, ML 2:436

[36] BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:186, BK 1:4:190, BK 1:4:191-192, BK 1:4:196, BK 1:4:198, ML 2:453-454-455-456

[37] BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:165, BK 3:31:155, ML 2:436, ML 2:437, ML 2:457

[38] BK 1:4:142, BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:165, BK 1:4:182, BK 1:4:198, BK 3:31:155, BK 4:52:167, BK 7:72:690, ML 2:437, ML 2:453-454-455-456, ML 2:457, ML 2:477, ML 2:525, ML 2:528, ML 2:529

[39] BK 1:4:190, BK 1:4:191-192, ML 2:456

[40] BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:196, BK 1:4:198, ML 2:455

[41] ML 2:531-533

[42] ML 2:532

[43] BK 1:4:204, ML 2:534, ML 2:535-536

[44] BK 1:4:142, ML 2:436

[45] BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:190, BK 1:4:191-192, BK 1:4:196, BK 1:4:198, ML 2:437, ML 2:453-454-455-456, ML 2:457, ML 2:477, ML 2:478

[46] BK 1:4:142, BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:185, BK 1:4:186, BK 1:4:190, BK 1:4:191-192, BK 1:4:196, BK 1:4:198, ML 2:436, ML 2:453-455-456, ML 2:477, ML 2:478

[47] BK 1:4:142, BK 3:31:155, ML 2:477

[48] BK 1:4:161, BK 1:4:165, BK 3:31:155, ML 2:436, ML 2:437

[49] BK 1:4:169, BK 7:65:292, BK 7:72:745, BK 7:72:810, ML 2:514, ML 2:515

[50] BK 1:4:200, ML 3:635, ML 3:636, ML 3:637

[51] ML 3:634

[52] BK 4:54:516, ML 2:462

[53] BK 1:4:166, ML 2:464-465-466-467, ML 2:472

[54] ML 2:470

[55] BK 1:3:57, BK 1:3:96, BK 1:4:164

[56] ML 2:468, ML 2:471

[57] BK 1:4:182, BK 4:52:167, BK 5:59:705, BK 7:72:690

[58] ML 2:525, ML 2:528, ML 2:529, ML 2:531-532-533

[59] BK 1:4:167

[60] BK 7:72:742

[61] ML 2:530, ML 4:848

[62] BK 1:4:167, ML 2:530

[63] BK 1:4:201, BK 1:4:202, BK 1:4:203, BK 1:4:204, BK 1:8:359, BK 1:8:384, ML 2:520-521-522, ML 2:524, ML 2:526, ML 2:527, ML 2:534, ML 2:535-536, ML 2:540

[64] ML 2:537-538-539

[65] BK 1:4:205, BK 7:72:691

[66] ML 2:529, ML 2:530

[67] BK 2:13:12, BK 3:31:154, ML 2:487

[68] BK 1:4:138, ML 2:477

[69] ML 2:478, ML 2:479, ML 2:481

[70] ML 2:479, ML 2:480, ML 2:481

[71] ML 2:482

[72] ML 2:442, ML 2:476

[73] ML 2:475

[74] ML 4:1812

[75] BK 1:8:466, BK 1:11:620, BK 3:34:330

[76] ML 2:446

[77] BK 1:8:436, BK 1:8:466, BK 1:11:628, BK 3:34:330, BK 4:54:452, ML 4:1399

[78] BK 2:21:243, ML 4:1702

[79] BK 1:4:137, BK 9:86:86

[80] BK 1:4:139, BK 1:4:177, BK 3:34:272, ML 3:702, ML 3:703

[81] BK 1:4:176, BK 1:8:466, BK 3:34:330

[82] BK 1:4:213

[83] ML 2:520-521, ML 2:522, ML 2:524-525, ML 2:526, ML 2:527, ML 2:528, ML 2:529, ML 2:531-532-533

[84] BK 1:3:134, BK 1:4:178, BK 1:5:269

[85] ML 3:593, ML 3:594, ML 3:595

[86] BK 1:4:163

[87] BK 1:4:140, BK 1:12:818

[88] ML 2:494

[89] BK 2:22:300

[90] ML 3:688

[91] ML 3:700-701

[92] BK 7:65:367

[93] ML 3:690, ML 3:698-699

[94] ML 3:689, ML 3:691, ML 3:692, ML 3:693-694, ML 3:695

[95] BK 1:4:209, BK 4:52:173-174, BK 7:65:319, BK 7:65:333, BK 7:65:372

[96] BK 1:4:206, BK 1:4:207

[97] ML 3:698-699

[98] BK 1:4:208, BK 1:4:214, BK 7:65:302, BK 7:65:296, BK 7:65:365

[99] BK 3:31:162, BK 5:58:159

[100] DJP 1.1.1 (Volume 1, pages 2-3), RT e8.1 (page 74), RT f9.13 (pages 152-153), SR 113 (pages 131-132)

[101] DJP 1.1.4 (Volume 1, page 32), note by a 20th century commentator in RT e7.0 (page 70), RT e8.1 (page 74)

[102] DJP 1.1.4.2 footnote page 34.

[103] RT e5.28 (page 67)

[104] DJP 1.1.1 (Volume 1, pages 2-3)

[105] RT k13.8 (pages 411-412)

[106] DJP 2.4.1 (Volume 1, page 201)

[107] DJP 1.1.5.3 (Volume 1, pages 42-43), RT e8.1 (page 74)

[108] DJP 1.1.5.1 (Volume 1, page 41), RT e8.1-e8.2 (pages 74-75)

[109] DJP 1.1.5.3 (Volume 1, pages 42-43)

[110] DJP 1.1.5.1 (Volume 1, page 41)

[111] RT e8.1(5) (page 74)

[112] RT f3.9 (pages 115-116)

[113] DJP 1.1.5.2 (Volume 1, pages 41-42)

[114] RT e5.29 (page 67)

[115] DJP 1.1.2.3 - 1.1.2.10 (Volume 1, pages 5-13), RT e5.1 (page 60), RT e5.5-e6.7 (pages 61-70), SR 19 (pages 73-74)

[116] DJP 1.1.2.1 (Volume 1, page 3); DJP 1.2.1.2 (Volume 1, page 45), RT e5.1-e5.4 (pages 60-61)

[117] DJP 1.1.2.12 (Volume 1, page 14)

[118] RT e5.5 (pages 61-62)

[119] DJP 1.1.2.1 (Volume 1, pages 4-5)

[120] RT e5.6 (page 62)

[121] RT e5.7 (page 62)

[122] RT e3.0-3.4 (pages 57-58)

[123] RT e3.3 (page 58)

[124] DJP 1.1.2.3 (Volume 1, pages 5-6), RT e5.7 (page 62)

[125] DJP 1.1.2.4 (Volume 1, page 6), RT e 5.8-e5.9 (page 63)

[126] DJP 1.1.2.5 (Volume 1, pages 6-7), RT e 5.10 (page 63), SR 143 (pages 152-153)

[127] DJP 1.1.2.6 (Volume 1, pages 7-8)

[128] DJP 1.1.2.8 (Volume 1, pages 9-10), SR 683 (page 324)

[129] RT e5.11 (pages 63-64)

[130] DJP 1.1.2.9 (Volu me 1, pages 10-11), RT e 5.12 (page 64)

[131] DJP 1.1.2.10 (Volume 1, pages 11-13), SR 143 (pages 152-153), RT e5.13 (page 64)

[132] DJP 1.1.2.13 – 1.1.2.13.1 (Volume 1, pages 14-15)

[133] RT e6.1 (page 68)

[134] RT e6.4 (pages 69-70)

[135] SR 81 (pages 104-105), SR 207 (pages 188-189), SR 211 (page 189), SR 687-689 (page 325)

[136] RT e5.7 (page 62)

[137] RT e5.8 (page 63)

[138] RT e5.10 (page 63)

[139] RT e5.11 (pages 63-64)

[140] RT e5.12 (page 64)

[141] RT e5.13 (page 64)

[142] RT e5.15 (page 64)

[143] RT e5.25 (pages 66-67)

[144] DJP 1 (Volume 1, page 1), DJP 1.3.1 (pages 67-68), RT e12.1 (pages 84-85)

[145] DJP 1.3.7 (Volume 1, pages 78-79)

[146] DJP 1.1.4.1 (Volume 1, pages 32-34)

[147] DJP 1.1.4 (Volume 1, page 32)

[148] RT e10.5 (page 80), see also DJP 1.1.4 (Volume 1, page 32)

[149] DJP  1.1.4 - 1.1.4.1 (Volume 1, pages 32-34)

[150] RT e7.1 (page 71)

[151] DJP 2.4.1.1 (Volume 1, pages 201-202)

[152] RT f9.13 (pages 152-153)

[153] DJP 2.3.2.7 (Volume 1, page 173), RT f12.27 (page 183)

[154] DJP 1.1.4.2 (Volume 1, pages 34-36), note by 20th century commentator in RT e7.2 (page 71)

[155] DJP 1.1.4.2 (Volume 1, pages 34-36)

[156] RT e7.2 (pages 71-72)

[157] DJP 1.1.4.7 (Volume 1, page 40), RT e7.2 (pages 71-72)

[158] DJP 1.1.4.3 (Volume 1, pages 36-38)

[159] RT e7.3 (page 72)

[160] DJP 1.1.4.4 (Volume 1, pages 38-39)

[161] RT e7.4 (pages 72-73)

[162] DJP 1.1.4.6 (Volume 1, pages 39-40)

[163] RT e7.5 (page 73)

[164] DJP 2.4.1.4 (Volume 1, page 203)

[165] DJP 2.4.1.3 (Volume 1, page 203)

[166] RT f9.5 (page 150)