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Ritual Purity Laws of Judaism, Table of Contents

 

 

Laws of Religion

Laws of Judaism

Concerning Ritual Purity and Cleanliness

 

5.  Impurity from Bodily Emissions

 

from the Biblical Books of Moses (Torah)

and the Code of Maimonides (Mishneh Torah)

 

 

Impurity from Bodily Emissions

From the Biblical Books of Moses (Torah)

 

 (Editor’s note: While there are numerous laws concerning  ritual purity in Judaism, only certain specific practices based on these laws are observed today, as explained in the Introduction to this section. Ritual purity laws whose procedures are still followed today are so noted in our summaries.)

 

Any man who discharges semen, any woman who lies with him when there is a discharge of semen and any clothing with semen on it requires washing in water and is impure until evening.[1] Even when the army is deployed against an enemy, a man who becomes impure by an emission of semen at night has to separate himself from the camp, wash with water and not return to camp until sunset.[2]

 

A man who has a discharge from his body is impure.[3] He renders impure his bed, whatever he sits on and his riding saddle.[4] A person with a bodily discharge was to be put out of the camp.[5] Anyone who touches a person with a bodily discharge, his bed, what he sat on, anything that was under him, or what was touched by him is impure until evening and was required to wash himself and his clothes.[6] After the discharge stopped, the man was to count off seven days for his cleansing, wash his clothes and bathe in running water. Then he was clean. On the eighth day, a sacrifice of two birds was to be made to a priest, who would make atonement for him.[7]

 

A woman who discharges menstrual blood is to be separated for seven days.[8] If her discharge is not at the usual time of her menstrual period or if it extends beyond the usual time, she is impure during the whole time of the discharge.[9]

 

(Editor’s note:  Most of the rules concerning ritual purity in Judaism are no longer followed, as explained in the Introduction to this section. Among those that are still observed are the prohibitions concerning contact with one’s wife from the commencement of vaginal discharge of blood or from childbirth until ritual immersion in a pool of water (mikvah).)

 

Whatever a woman with a regular or irregular bloody discharge lies on or sits on is also made impure.[10] Anyone who touches what she has lain on or sat on is also impure until evening and he was required to wash himself and his clothes.[11] It is specifically forbidden for a man to have sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman.[12] Any man who lies with such a woman so that her blood is on him is impure for seven days, and any bed that he then lies on is impure;[13] both of them will be cut off from their people.[14] After the bloody discharge stops, a woman is required to wait seven more days and she is pure after that.[15] On the eighth day she was to bring a sacrifice of two birds to a priest, who would make atonement for her.[16]

 

A woman who gives birth to a son is impure for seven days and requires purification for thirty-three days.[17] If the baby is a female, the mother is impure for two weeks and the period of purification is sixty-six days.[18] A sacrificial sin offering of a lamb and a bird to a priest was required at the end of the period of purification so the priest could atone for the mother and she would become pure.[19] The mother was not permitted to touch any Hallowed Thing or enter the sanctuary until her purification was completed.[20]

 

 

Impurity from Bodily Emissions

Jewish Law (Halakha) from the Code of Maimonides (Mishneh Torah)

 

Contents

 

Irregular genital flows, menstruation and childbirth

 

Purification procedures following irregular genital flows, menstruation and childbirth

 

Transfer of impurity of irregular genital flows, menstruation and childbirth

 

Impurity from non-Jews

 

Impurity from semen and intercourse

 

 

Irregular genital flows, menstruation and childbirth. A person who has an irregular genital flow (flux) and a woman who is menstruating or has given birth is impure (until purified by immersion). Each of these is a Father of Impurity and each transfers impurity to other people and useful objects in the same ways.[21]

 

(Editor’s note:  Most of the rules concerning ritual purity in Judaism are no longer followed, as explained in the Introduction to this section. Among those that are still observed are the prohibitions concerning contact with one’s wife from the commencement of vaginal discharge of blood or from childbirth until ritual immersion in a pool of water (mikvah).)

 

For a man, irregular genital flow causing impurity (zav) is white, but not as clear white as normal semen.[22] It is discharged without erection of the penis or feelings of sexual desire or satisfaction,[23] without a thought of sexual relations, without seeing a woman who induced lustful urges, without overeating or overdrinking or eating food or drinking beverages that induce the discharge of semen, without being sick, without lifting a heavy object and without jumping around.[24] Maimonides says that irregular genital flow from a man is semen.[25]

 

For a woman, irregular genital flow causing impurity (zavah) is bleeding at a time other than her normal menstrual period.[26] The discharge must be red blood not a white or green liquid in order for it to render the woman ritually impure.[27] Such a discharge or a menstrual flow makes a woman impure even if it is the result of jumping or becoming sexually excited as a result of observing the mating of animals or birds.[28]

 

 

Purification procedures following irregular genital flows, menstruation and childbirth.  To become pure, a man or a woman who has suffered from irregular genital flow or a woman who has completed her menstrual period or given birth must undergo immersion.  Otherwise, even many years later such a person will still be impure.[29]

 

Immersion in water is to be done on the eighth night following the commencement of the menstrual period.[30] A woman with irregular genital flow lasting one or two days waits one day after cessation of the flow before immersing herself.  A woman with a longer period of irregular genital flow,[31] one who has given birth to a male, and a man with irregular genital flow wait seven days.  After giving birth to a female, the period of waiting is fourteen days.[32] A man or a woman who immerse after the seven day period following irregular genital flow may not engage in any activities that require them to be pure until the evening following their immersion.[33]

 

In the present age, all Jews are considered to be ritually impure, as explained in the Introduction to this section. However, some of the practices based on the laws of ritual purity are still observed, including the purification procedures with immersion in a pool of water (mikvah) for a menstruating woman (niddah) or one who has recently given birth. In fact, the requirements for these procedures have been made more stringent by increasing the time that must pass before immersion can occur.[34] Furthermore, all blood emanating from the vagina is now regarded, for purposes of determining the time for immersion, as the blood of irregular genital flow. Therefore, rather than immersing after seven days following the commencement of menstruation, it is now required to wait seven days following the cessation of the menstrual flow. This extended period of impurity now applies to any vaginal bleeding[35] including bleeding of the hymen following intercourse of a virgin.[36] Similarly, a woman must now wait seven days after the flow of blood after childbirth stops before immersing herself rather than waiting just seven days after giving birth to a boy or fourteen days after the birth of a girl.[37] The prohibitions concerning contact with one’s wife from the commencement of menstrual flow until ritual immersion are still observed.

 

To purify an article of clothing that is impure because of a blood emission, the stain must be treated with seven specific substances, including saliva, chewed up peas, fermented urine and potash.[38] Then, when the garment is immersed, it becomes pure even if the bloodstain is still visible.[39]

 

 

Transfer of impurity of irregular genital flows, menstruation and childbirth.  Men and women who have irregular genital flow and women who are menstruating or have recently given birth make others who touch or carry them impure. (Recently given birth means prior to purifying immersion following childbirth.) Also, useful objects that are susceptible to impurity become impure upon touching or being carried above such a person. Furthermore, when such a person sits, lies or rides on something, that thing also becomes impure and transfers impurity to a thing that touches it or to a person who touches or carries it,[40] but only if that thing is something suitable for sitting, lying or riding upon[41] and is owned by the impure person.[42] If a person is touching what has been made impure by another person who had sat or lain upon it and, at the same time, touches a useful object susceptible to impurity, that object becomes impure.[43]

 

Like a person with irregular genital flow and a woman who is menstruating or who has given birth and what these people sit or lie upon, so their spittle, urine, irregular genital discharge, menstrual blood and blood following childbirth are all Fathers of Impurity. Anyone touching or carrying any of these becomes impure and transfers impurity to clothing and useful objects susceptible to impurity that he is also touching at the same time.[44] However, the sweat, odorous moisture and feces from a person with irregular genital flow or a woman who is menstruating or who has given birth are ritually pure.[45]

 

A man who has sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman, with a woman with irregular genital flow or with a woman who has recently given birth becomes a Father of Impurity. He transfers impurity to persons that touch or carry him as well as to things upon which he sits, lies, or rides.[46] However, his seat, couch or saddle, unlike those of a menstruating woman, do not transfer impurity to another person who sits lies or rides upon them, but only to food and to liquids.[47] He becomes a Father of Impurity even if the act of intercourse is not completed or is unnatural (anal), as long as the male is over nine years old and the female over three years old. If either one is below this age, then the male becomes impure but does not transfer impurity to others.[48]

 

A man who has intercourse with a menstruating woman, with a woman with irregular genital flows or with a woman who has recently given birth is subject to the punishment of extinction (also translated as excision, extirpation or having one’s soul cut off from his people; karet in Hebrew)[49] which entails a flogging.[50] This punishment pertains as long as the tip of the man's penis has entered her vagina or anus and she is over three years old.[51] (If she is less than three years and one day old, intercourse with her is not regarded as intercourse;[52] healing will restore the virginity of such a young female following sexual intercourse.[53]) This is the punishment if the intercourse occurs before the time of purification of the woman by immersion.[54] If the woman fails to purify herself by ritual immersion in a pool of water (mikvah) after menstruation, irregular genital flow or childbirth, then a man who has intercourse with her, even years later, is liable to extinction (karet).[55] A man who has intercourse with a woman who is presumed by her neighbors to be menstruating is subject to a flogging.[56]

 

A man is forbidden from getting close to his menstruating wife even if they are both fully clothed. This prohibition applies through the seven days following the cessation of menstrual flow until her ritual immersion in a pool of water (mikvah). He is not to come into contact with her even by touching her with his little finger.[57] Nor may he eat out of the same dish with her.[58] During this period, she may not fulfill her usual obligations[59] to her husband of washing his hands, his face and his feet.[60] Also, her usual obligation to make his bed[61] should be fulfilled only when he is absent.[62] Her usual obligation to hand him his drinks[63] should be fulfilled by placing the drink on the floor or on a table where he can take it for himself.[64] All of these restrictions are to prevent the occurrence of prohibited sexual intercourse.[65] (Editor’s note:  Most of the rules concerning ritual purity in Judaism are no longer followed, as explained in the Introduction to this section. Among those that are still observed are the prohibitions concerning contact with one’s wife from the commencement of vaginal discharge of blood or from childbirth until ritual immersion in a pool of water (mikvah).)

 

If a woman has regular menstrual periods, her husband may assume that she is not having her period when it is not her usual time unless she or her neighbors say that she is menstruating.  Thus, he may have intercourse with her if he arrives home from a trip and she is asleep.[66] He is to refrain from having intercourse with her on the day or evening when her menstrual flow is expected, even if it has not yet begun.[67]

 

If a woman says that she is ritually impure and then says that she had only been joking and that she is, in fact, pure, she is to be believed only if she provides a good reason for having said she is impure – for example, that her husband's mother or sister were nearby and she did not want to be seen by them having intercourse with her husband.[68]

 

If in the midst of intercourse the woman, who was ritually pure, declares that she has become impure, the man must not withdraw from her while he still has an erection. This is because a man derives equal pleasure from withdrawal and entry and so the punishment of extinction (karet) would apply. Rather, he should remain motionless with his toenail dug into the ground until his penis is no longer erect. Only then is he to withdraw.[69]

 

A woman whose menstrual periods are not regular must test herself for blood with a white cloth both before and after each act of sexual intercourse. If her periods are regular, then the test cloth is only required after intercourse. The man must also wipe himself with a cloth to test for his wife's blood after intercourse.[70]

 

No test cloth is needed after intercourse with a virgin, since the flow of her blood is ritually pure; it is not considered as menstrual blood.[71] However, as explained above on this page, since the time of the Talmudic sages, Jewish women have adopted the practice of regarding the blood from the torn hymen of a virgin as causing ritual impurity. To become pure again, the woman must ritually immerse herself in water after seven days without vaginal bleeding.[72]

 

(Editor's note: At the present time, all Jews are considered to be ritually impure, as explained in the Introduction to this section. However, some of the practices based on the laws of ritual purity are still observed, including the prohibition against having sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman prior to her ritual immersion in a pool of water (mikvah). This applies generally to women with vaginal bleeding. In fact, the Moznaim translation of Maimonides' Mishneh Torah emphasizes that the stringent rule stated in the previous paragraph concerning the blood resulting from intercourse with a virgin is accepted in our time.[73] An additional Moznaim footnote explains that when intercourse with a virgin causes blood to flow from her, her husband is permitted to withdraw from her while his penis is still in a state of erection.[74] He is not subject to the prohibition that applies to such withdrawal from a woman who has suddenly begun menstruating, discussed on this page above.)

 

If either a man or a woman has sexual intercourse with a man with irregular genital flow, that person becomes impure but only as someone who touches a man with irregular genital flow. Thus that person does not subsequently transfer impurity to others or to a seat, couch or saddle.[75]

 

A man and a woman who both have irregular genital flows may not eat together, lest they subsequently have sexual intercourse.[76]

 

Those with irregular genital flow and women who were menstruating or had recently given birth were excluded from the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.[77] Violators were liable for a flogging since they had violated a negative commandment of the Torah.[78] A person who had had intercourse with a menstruating woman was forbidden to enter a specified area of the Temple.[79]

 

 

Impurity from non-Jews. The only living people who can be ritually impure are Jews; living non-Jews, like cattle, cannot be impure.[80] However, the Sages decreed that all non-Jews transfer impurity like a Jewish man with irregular genital flows, who is a Father of Impurity. Thus, non-Jewish males over nine years old and non-Jewish females over three years old transfer impurity like a menstruating Jew or one with irregular genital flow whether or not the non-Jew has any bodily discharge. This is based on rulings of the Scribes rather than on the Torah. The one exception is that semen of a non-Jew is pure.

 

So the spittle and urine of non-Jews transmits impurity to a person who touches or carries it. Any seat, couch or saddle that a non-Jew sits, lies or rides upon is impure. Having intercourse with a non-Jewish woman confers impurity on the man, just like having intercourse with a menstruating Jewish woman. However, since the ritual impurity status of non-Jews is based solely on the authority of the Scribes rather than on the Torah, a person is not liable for punishment for entering the Temple (in Jerusalem) or eating Hallowed Things when in an impure state transferred from a non-Jew. Similarly, it is not necessary to burn heave offering made impure in this way.[81]

 

 

Impurity from semen and intercourse. Touching semen renders ritually impure a person or a useful object susceptible to impurity.[82] Only semen of a Jew[83] over nine years of age[84] causes impurity.

 

Emission of semen also makes a man impure[85] but only if he is aware of the emission.  If it occurs without erection of the penis and without lust, then it does not make him impure.[86] If he dreams of having sex and awakes to find himself aroused, then he is impure even if he does not discern the presence of emitted semen.[87]

 

A woman who has sexual intercourse with a man becomes impure. This impurity is the same type as that of the man who emits semen; it is not the same as touching semen since the semen is in her vagina, not on her outer skin. The impurity of a female from intercourse does not occur if the intercourse is unnatural (anal) or if the female is below the age of three years and one day. If she is less than three years old, she can still become impure by contact of her outer skin with semen, but not by the act of intercourse itself.[88] The woman also remains pure if the male is less than nine years old or is a non-Jew or an animal.[89] Both the man and the woman remain pure if there is no emission of semen.[90]

 

Semen emanating from a woman's vagina or reaching the opening but not actually coming out makes the woman impure if it occurs during the two days following intercourse. A person touching the semen that has emerged during this time period is also made impure.[91] Similarly, semen emanating from a non-Jewish woman or an animal within two days after intercourse with a Jewish man is impure.[92] Since the semen of a non-Jew is pure,[93] the emanation of such semen from a Jewish woman, even within two days of intercourse, does not cause the woman to become impure.[94]

 

________________

 

Laws of Religion is a project of the Religion Research Society.

 

Updated March 19, 2017

 

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Ritual Purity Laws of Judaism, Table of Contents

 

Abbreviations used in footnotes:

Gen: The Biblical book of Genesis.

Exod: The Biblical book of Exodus.

Lev: The Biblical book of Leviticus.

Num: The Biblical Book of Numbers.

Deut: The Biblical Book of Deuteronomy.

MT:  The Mishneh Torah of Maimonides (Code of Maimonides). The names of the specific books and treatises within each book are given according to the Yale University Press translation and also the Moznaim/Touger Hebrew transliterations to facilitate locating the texts posted here.

F:  indicates page numbers in the Feldheim Publishers, Ltd., translation of Book 1 of the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides, the Book of Knowledge.

M:  indicates page numbers in the relevant volume of the Moznaim Publishing Corporation’s Touger translation. (Some of the books of Mishneh Torah are published in several volumes by Moznaim, so the Moznaim volume numbers do not correspond to the Book numbers of Maimonides’ work.)

Y:  indicates page numbers in the translation of the Y ale University Press Judaica Series.

●  The sources cited are described on the page Source Texts Used for Laws of Judaism.

 



[1] Lev 15:16-18

[2] Deut 23:9-11

[3] Lev 15:1-3

[4] Lev 15:4,9

[5] Num 5:1-4

[6] Lev 15:4-8,10-11

[7] Lev 15:13-15

[8] Lev 15:19

[9] Lev 15:25

[10] Lev 15:20,26

[11] Lev 15:21-23,27

[12] Lev 18:19

[13] Lev 15:24

[14] Lev 20:18

[15] Lev 15:28

[16] Lev 15:29-30

[17] Lev 12:2,4

[18] Lev 12:5

[19] Lev 12:6-8

[20] Lev 12:4

[21] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 1, sec 1 (page 207Y); Chapter 1, sec 15 (page 209Y)

[22] MT Book 9, The Book of Offerings, Sefer HaKorbanot; Treatise 5 on Those Whose Atonement is Not Complete, Mechusrei Kapparah; Chapter 2, sec 1 (pages 312M 160Y); MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 1, sec 6 (page 207Y)

[23] MT Book 9, The Book of Offerings, Sefer HaKorbanot; Treatise 5 on Those Whose Atonement is Not Complete, Mechusrei Kapparah; Chapter 2, sec 1 (pages 312M 160Y)

[24] MT Book 9, The Book of Offerings, Sefer HaKorbanot; Treatise 5 on Those Whose Atonement is Not Complete, Mechusrei Kapparah; Chapter 2, sec 2 (pages 312M 160-161Y)

[25] MT Book 9, The Book of Offerings, Sefer HaKorbanot; Treatise 5 on Those Whose Atonement is Not Complete, Mechusrei Kapparah; Chapter 2, sec 1 (pages 312M 160Y)

[26] MT Book 9, The Book of Offerings, Sefer HaKorbanot; Treatise 5 on Those Whose Atonement is Not Complete, Mechusrei Kapparah; Chapter 1, sec 6 (pages 306M 157Y)

[27] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 5, secs 6-7 (pages 60M 33Y); MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 1, sec 6 (page 207Y)

[28] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 5, sec 1 (pages 58M 31Y)

[29] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 1 (page 222Y)

[30] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, sec 6 (pages 26-27Y 48M)

[31] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 6, secs 7-8 (page 39Y); sec 11 (page 40Y)

[32] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, secs 5-6 (pages 46-48M 26-27Y); MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 2 (page 222Y); sec 9 (page 225Y)

[33] The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 9 (page 225Y)

[34] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 11, secs 3-17 (pages 140-178M 75-79Y)

[35] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 11, secs 3-4 (pages 140M 75-76Y)

[36] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 11, sec 8 (pages 142M 77Y)

[37] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 7, sec 5 (pages 82M 45Y); Chapter 11, sec 5 (pages 140-142M 76Y)

[38] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 9, secs 36-37 (pages 122-124M 66-67Y)

[39] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 4, sec 11 (pages 220-221Y)

[40] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 1, sec 1 (page 207Y)

[41] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 7, sec 8 (pages 231-232Y)

[42] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 7 on Utensils, Chapter 24, sec 7 (pages 479-480Y).

[43] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 6, secs 1-2 (pages 225-227Y)

[44] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 1, sec 8 (page 208Y); Chapter 1, sec 12 (page 209Y); Chapter 1, secs 14-16 (pages 209-210Y); Chapter 6, sec 2 (pages 226-227Y)

[45] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 1, sec 16 (pages 209-210Y)

[46] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 3, sec 1 (page 213Y); Chapter 3, sec 3 (page 214Y)

[47] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 3, sec 2 (pages 213-214Y)

[48] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 3, sec 3 (page 214Y)

[49] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, secs 1-2 (pages 44-46M 25-26Y)

[50] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 1, sec 7 (pages 16M 11Y); MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 2 on Forbidden Foods, Ma’achalot Assurot; Chapter 14, sec 1 (pages 438M 226Y); MT Book 8, The Book of Temple Service, Sefer Ha’Avodah; Treatise III on Entrance into the Sanctuary; Bi’at HaMikdash; Chapter 4, sec 1 (pages 242M 98Y); MT Book 14, The Book of Judges, Sefer Shoftim; Treatise 1 Sanhedrin, Sanhedrin V’Haonshin Hamesurim Lahem; Chapter 18, sec 1 (pages 130M 50Y)

[51] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, sec 1 (pages 44-46M 25Y)

[52] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 1, sec 13 (pages 20M 13Y)

[53] MT Book 4, The Book of Women, Sefer Nashim; Treatise 1 on Marriage, Ishut; Chapter 11, sec 3 (pages 132M 68Y)

[54] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, sec 2 (pages 46M 25-26Y)

[55] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, sec 3 (pages 46M 26Y)

[56] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 1, sec 22 (pages 26M 16Y)

[57] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 11, sec 14 (pages 144-146M 78Y); Chapter 11, secs 18-19 (pages 148M 79-80Y)

[58] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 11, secs 18-19 (pages 148M 79-80Y); MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 6 on Uncleanness of Foodstuffs, Chapter 16, sec 11 (page 393Y)

[59] MT Book 4, The Book of Women, Sefer Nashim; Treatise 1 on Marriage, Ishut; Chapter 21, sec 3 (pages 268M 131Y); sec 7 (pages 270M 132Y)

[60] MT Book 4, The Book of Women, Sefer Nashim; Treatise 1 on Marriage, Ishut; Chapter 21, sec 8 (pages 270M 132Y); MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 11, sec 19 (pages 148M 80Y)

[61] MT Book 4, The Book of Women, Sefer Nashim; Treatise 1 on Marriage, Ishut; Chapter 21, sec 3 (pages 268M 131Y); sec 7 (pages 270M 132Y)

[62] MT Book 4, The Book of Women, Sefer Nashim; Treatise 1 on Marriage, Ishut; Chapter 21, sec 8 (pages 270M 132Y)

[63] MT Book 4, The Book of Women, Sefer Nashim; Treatise 1 on Marriage, Ishut; Chapter 21, sec 3 (pages 268M 131Y); sec 7 (pages 270M 132Y) ; MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 6 on Uncleanness of Foodstuffs, Chapter 16, sec 11 (page 393Y)

[64] MT Book 4, The Book of Women, Sefer Nashim; Treatise 1 on Marriage, Ishut; Chapter 21, sec 8 (pages 270M 132Y)

[65] MT Book 4, The Book of Women, Sefer Nashim; Treatise 1 on Marriage, Ishut; Chapter 21, sec 8 (pages 270M 132Y); MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 11, secs 18-19 (pages 148M 79-80Y); MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 6 on Uncleanness of Foodstuffs, Chapter 16, sec 11 (page 393Y)

[66] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, sec 9 (pages 48M 27Y)

[67] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, sec 12 (pages 50M 28Y)

[68] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, sec 10 (pages 50M 27-28Y)

[69] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, sec 11 (pages 50M 28Y)

[70] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, secs 14-16 (pages 52M 28-29Y)

[71] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 4, sec 16 (pages 52M 29Y); Chapter 5, sec 18 (pages 66M 36Y)

[72] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 11, sec 8 (pages 142M 77Y)

[73] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 5, sec 18 footnote 29 (page 66M)

[74] MT Book 5, The Book of Holiness, Sefer Kedushah; Treatise 1 on Forbidden Intercourse, Issurei Bi’ah; Chapter 11, sec 8 footnote 16 (page 143M)

[75] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 3, sec 3 (page 214Y)

[76] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 6 on Uncleanness of Foodstuffs, Chapter 16, sec 11 (page 393Y)

[77] MT Book 8, The Book of Temple Service, Sefer Ha’Avodah; Treatise 3 on Entrance into the Sanctuary, Bi’at HaMikdash;  Chapter 3, sec 3 (pages 232M 93Y)

[78] MT Book 8, The Book of Temple Service, Sefer Ha’Avodah; Treatise 3 on Entrance into the Sanctuary, Bi’at HaMikdash;  Chapter 3, sec 8 (pages 234M 93Y)

[79] MT Book 8, The Book of Temple Service, Sefer Ha’Avodah; Treatise 3 on Entrance into the Sanctuary, Bi’at HaMikdash;  Chapter 3, sec 5 (pages 232M 93Y)

[80] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 1 on Corpse Uncleanness, Chapter 1, sec 13 (pages 8-9Y)

[81] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 2, sec 10 (pages 212-213Y)

[82] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 1 (pages 269-270Y)

[83] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 2, sec 10 (pages 212-213Y)

[84] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 2 (page 270Y).

[85] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 1 (pages 269-270Y)

[86] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 4 (page 270Y)

[87] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 5 (page 270Y)

[88] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 9 (page 271Y)

[89] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 19 (page 273Y)

[90] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 10 (page 271Y)

[91] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, secs 11-13 (page 272Y)

[92] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 16 (page 273Y)

[93] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 4 on Couch and Seat Uncleanness, Chapter 2, sec 10 (pages 212-213Y)

[94] MT Book 10, The Book of Cleanness, Sefer Taharah; Treatise 5 on Other Fathers of Uncleanness, Chapter 5, sec 17 (page 273Y)